what do ringed seals eat

What Do Ringed Seals Eat?

Written by: Gemmali Dizor

Ringed seals are an integral component of the Arctic ecosystem, so it’s important to understand their dietary habits. Ringed seals are one of the smallest seal species and can be found throughout northernmost Arctic waters from the Beaufort Sea in the west to the Laptev Sea in the east. As keystone species within this region, they provide food for many top predators. In this article, we’ll look into what ringed seals eat and why their diet matters for their survival.

Ringed Seal Feeding Habits

Are you feeding your ringed seals? Here is some information to help you out:

Ringed seals are primarily bottom feeders, spending most of their time foraging on the seafloor. Their teeth have been specially designed to crush prey such as invertebrates like clams, mussels, and shrimp into pieces. Ringed seals also feed on smaller fish such as Arctic cod or capelin.

Ringed seals often feed at the ice edge, where they can access open water and prey on fish attracted to nutrient-rich waters created by melting ice. If given enough opportunity, these predators have also been known to take advantage of other species of seals like harp seals as well.

Ringed seals have the capacity to dive to depths of 150 meters and remain submerged for over 45 minutes. Their powerful front flippers propel them through the water while their hind flippers steer and maintain direction. Their ability to stay submerged allows them to access prey that other predators cannot reach, such as fish that would normally go undetected by other predators.

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What Do Ringed Seals Eat?

Ringed seals eat both invertebrates and fish. Insects such as clams and mussels make up the bulk of their diet during summer months when these species are abundant. Their specialized teeth enable them to crush these animals’ shells to extract soft tissue inside.

Ringed seals often feed on fish species like Arctic cod, capelin, and sand lance. These fish serve as an important source of protein and fat during wintertime when other food sources may be scarce. Ringed seals have also been known to consume squid and octopus occasionally but these only make up a small part of their diet.

Ringed seals are opportunistic feeders and will take advantage of any available food source. They have been known to scavenge on carcasses of other animals like whales or walruses, as well as feed on other species of seals when presented with the opportunity.

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Climate Change Impacts Ringed Seal Diet

Ringed seals have evolved to thrive in the Arctic environment and depend on sea ice for survival. But climate change is causing rapid changes to this environment, including changes to sea ice cover extent and duration. These adjustments are having a major impact on ringed seals’ diets and feeding habits.

Ringed seals have been forced farther and further inland by the loss of sea ice, thus decreasing their access to their preferred hunting grounds at the ice edge. This requires them to spend more energy foraging for food while increasing their vulnerability to predation. Furthermore, the shrinking sea ice is impacting prey abundance and distribution – further hindering their ability to find food sources.

Studies have demonstrated that as the Arctic warms, so too do the composition of its food web. This has resulted in changes to ringed seals’ diets as they adapt to this new environment. There is evidence that they are shifting towards species better adapted to warmer waters like Arctic cod; however, this shift may have implications for their overall health and reproductive success since these alternative food sources may not provide them with the same nutritional advantages.

Climate change could also have an effect on the ringed seal diet due to an increase in harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs are becoming more frequent in Arctic waters as sea ice melts and ocean temperatures rise, potentially toxic for some of their prey species like clams or mussels that ringed seals rely on. This decrease in availability could have negative consequences for the population overall of ringed seals.


Ringed seals are an integral part of the Arctic ecosystem and their dietary habits play a critical role in their survival. Generally, bottom feeders feed on various invertebrates and fish; however, climate change is causing significant changes to their habitat and prey availability which in turn impacts their diet and feeding patterns. Therefore, it is vital that we continue monitoring ringed seals’ diets, along with other Arctic species, to better understand how they are adapting to changes in the environment and protect them in the future.

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