what can sugar gliders eat

What Can Sugar Gliders Eat?

Written by: Jim Beischel

Understanding the dietary needs of sugar gliders is crucial for anyone considering these charming marsupials as pets. Sugar gliders have specific dietary requirements that are essential to their health and longevity. This article provides comprehensive insights into the foods that are safe and beneficial for sugar gliders, ensuring they receive a balanced and nutritious diet.

Sugar gliders are omnivorous marsupials, and in the wild, their diet consists of a variety of foods. They typically consume nectar, tree sap, fruits, insects, and even small vertebrates. This diverse diet provides them with essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

Safe Fruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are a significant part of a sugar glider’s diet. They should be fresh and washed to remove any pesticides. Safe options include:

  • Fruits: Apples, pears, grapes, bananas, melons, and berries. These should be served in moderation due to their sugar content.
  • Vegetables: Leafy greens like spinach, lettuce, and kale, along with carrots, sweet potatoes, and squash. These provide essential vitamins and minerals.

Protein Sources

Protein is vital for sugar gliders, and in the wild, this need is met through the consumption of insects and small animals. In captivity, protein can be provided through:

  • Insects: Feeder insects like crickets, mealworms, and waxworms are excellent protein sources.
  • Cooked Meats: Small amounts of lean, cooked meats (chicken or turkey) can be offered occasionally.

The Role of Nectar and Gums

In their natural habitat, sugar gliders consume eucalyptus and acacia gums, along with nectar. These can be replicated in captivity through:

  • Commercial Nectar Replacements: These are specially formulated to meet the nutritional needs of sugar gliders.
  • Gum Arabic: A natural gum that can be offered as a dietary supplement.

Foods to Avoid

Certain foods can be harmful to sugar gliders and should be avoided:

  • Toxic Foods: Avocado, chocolate, caffeine, garlic, and onions are toxic to sugar gliders.
  • High-Fat Foods: Nuts and seeds should be given sparingly due to their high-fat content.
  • Processed Foods: Sugar gliders should not be fed processed human foods, as these can cause health problems.

Supplements and Vitamins

Sugar gliders may require additional supplements to ensure a balanced diet:

  • Calcium and Vitamin D: A common issue in sugar gliders is calcium deficiency, which can be prevented with supplements.
  • Multivitamins: These can be useful, especially for sugar gliders not receiving a varied diet.

Feeding Practices and Schedule

Feeding sugar gliders should align with their nocturnal habits. They should be fed in the evening and have their food removed in the morning to prevent spoilage. Fresh water should always be available.

Nutritional Balance and Variety

Achieving the right nutritional balance is key in a sugar glider’s diet. Each food group contributes to their overall health:

  • Varied Fruits and Vegetables: Incorporate a variety of fruits and vegetables to ensure a range of vitamins and minerals. Offer these in small, bite-sized pieces to accommodate their small mouths. Berries, mangoes, and papayas can be added to provide diversity. Rotate the types of fruits and vegetables regularly to prevent dietary monotony.
  • Leafy Greens: These are excellent sources of calcium, which is crucial for preventing metabolic bone disease. Collard greens, bok choy, and mustard greens can be added to their daily intake.

Importance of Fresh Foods

Freshness in a sugar glider’s diet cannot be overstated. Fresh foods ensure the maximum nutritional value:

  • Organic Produce: Opt for organic produce when possible to reduce exposure to pesticides.
  • Preparation: Thoroughly wash all fruits and vegetables. Remove pits and seeds from fruits, as these can be toxic.

Insect Feeding Considerations

When feeding insects, consider the following:

  • Gut Loading: Before feeding insects to your sugar glider, ‘gut load’ them 24 hours in advance. This process involves feeding the insects nutritious foods, which are then passed on to the sugar glider.
  • Live vs. Frozen: Live insects encourage natural foraging and hunting behaviors. However, frozen insects can be a convenient alternative, provided they are thawed properly before feeding.

Treats and Moderation

Treats can be given occasionally but should not make up a significant portion of the diet:

  • Honey and Yogurt: These can be offered sparingly as treats. Ensure that yogurt is plain and low in sugar.
  • Commercial Treats: Be cautious with commercial treats marketed for sugar gliders. Read ingredients carefully to avoid high sugar and artificial additives.


Water is an essential aspect of a sugar glider’s diet:

  • Fresh Water: Always provide access to fresh, clean water. Change it daily to ensure hygiene.
  • Water Bottles vs. Bowls: Use a water bottle to prevent contamination. If using a bowl, ensure it is shallow to prevent drowning.

Monitoring Diet and Health

Regular monitoring of your sugar glider’s diet and health is important:

  • Weight Checks: Regular weigh-ins can help monitor their health and adjust their diet if needed.
  • Observation: Pay attention to their eating habits. Changes in appetite or food preferences can indicate health issues.

Dietary Changes for Different Life Stages

Sugar gliders’ dietary needs change as they age:

  • Juveniles: Young sugar gliders may require more protein for growth.
  • Seniors: Older sugar gliders might need a diet lower in fat and easier to digest.

Interaction Through Feeding

Feeding time is also an opportunity for bonding and interaction:

  • Hand Feeding: Offer treats by hand to build trust and strengthen your bond.
  • Observing Natural Behaviors: Use feeding time to observe natural foraging and eating behaviors, which is crucial for their mental stimulation.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, feeding sugar gliders a balanced and varied diet is essential for their health and well-being. This includes a mix of fresh fruits and vegetables, adequate protein sources, and occasional treats. Regular monitoring and adjustments to their diet, considering their life stage and health status, are crucial. Understanding and catering to their dietary needs not only ensures their physical health but also provides opportunities for interaction and bond-building. By being attentive and informed about their dietary needs, sugar glider owners can ensure their pets thrive in a captive environment.

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